A little entity with: * State * BehaviorObjects as Behaviour * Identity

See "First look at Objects, Classes, Methods and Messages" pdf

> An **Object** is a unique entity instance of a class. A Class specifies the shape and behavior of all its instances. An object receives messages and executes corresponding methods. A Message is: What To Do. A Method is: How To Do It. Different objects can understand the same message and execute different methods. But we will see that again in the future lectures! pdf

A Container is an object from the Outside and a Process from the Inside. (Bricken, Iconic Arithmetic Volume I, p. 137)


We will distinguish between ‘objects’ and ‘living and Life-like Systems’. Systems that use environmental order for their formation, but do not have “feeding” mechanisms, will be called ‘objects’. We variously classify ‘living and life-like systems’ as organisms, social groups, mechanisms, etc.

Dennis, L., Gray, R.W., Kauffman, L.H. et al. A Framework Linking Non-Living and Living Systems: Classification of Persistence, Survival and Evolution Transitions. Found Sci 14, 217–238 (2009). doi , p. 220

See also Living Systems.

Marc below