Each observation uses a particular Distinction (e.g., system/environment, whole/part, form/background) that allows its construction of a network of further distinctions and thereby the achievement of →information from what it observes.

While an operation that realizes the self-reproduction of a system runs blind (and this also holds for observation as operation), it has more freedom as observation. This is because it is not subject to the condition of simultaneity with the world. It does not coincide instantaneously with its object. Observation is able to identify objects and can (when, for instance, it is oriented to the distinction system/environment) distinguish a system internal processes from those that do not belong to it; can determine Causal Relationships between inside and outside; can attribute a Goal to the system.