Void-Based Reasoning

Single concept system, see Containment

contains serves as a ground an object a unary operator a binary relation a data structure a transformation pattern

replication provides diversity

replication is the source of complexity


W. Bricken (2017) Distinction is Sufficient, Cybernetics and Human Knowing, 24(3-4), p.29-74.



- introduced by Spencer Brown as Crossing and Position - the concretization of the distinction as a container - Truth is existence.


- all forms are containers - boundaries distinguish their contents - contents are inherently independent - logic boundaries are semipermeable - many multidimensional options for representation

Computational technique

- pattern-directed structural transformation - deletion of irrelevant structure rather than collection of facts - depth insensitive operations across boundaries - non-intrusive, query-based identification of valid deletions - proof is reduction of form to void, remaining structure indicates contingency

Copyright © 2019 William M. Bricken. All rights reserved.